Mühsam I

Descendants of Seligmann Mühsam

 

To understand how to read the family listings, click HERE.


            For an overview of the Pappenheim and Mühsam families, click HERE.


Seligman PAPPENHEIM & Hinda ZÜLZ 

  1.   Salomon PAPPENHEIM (2 February 1740 - March 4 or 5, 1814)  The descendants of Salomon can be found HERE.

  2.   Simon Seligman PAPPENHEIM (1731 - 1819)  The descendants of Simon can be found HERE.

  3.   Löbel PAPPENHEIM   Löbel is discussed on THIS page, and possible descendants are found HERE.

  4.   Valentin PAPPENHEIM  The descendants of Valentin can be found HERE.

  5.   Pinkus MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) (1737 - 28 July 1807) & Barbara (Berocho) JOSEPH JONAS ( - 14 August 1822)

  6.   Maria MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Hirsch JACOB

  7.   Maria MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Jonas LAX

  8.   Pesse MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) (14 October 1776 - 28 January 1845) & Jacob SORAUER  The descendants of Pesse and Jacob SORAUER (my ancestors) are found HERE.

  9.   Frommet MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) & Benjamin BAGINSKY The descendants of Frommet and Benjamin BAGINSKY are found HERE.

  10.   Esther MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Samuel SCHWEITZER The descendants of Esther and Samuel SCHWEITZER are found HERE.

  11.   Esther MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Salomon HEILBORN

  12.   Rösel MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) (about 1790 - ) & Itzig PAPPENHEIM ( - 15 August 1838)  Descendants are found HERE.

  13.   Charlotte MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Abraham SITTENFELD  Descendants are found HERE.

  14.   Charlotte MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM)* & Michael RECHNITZ

  15.   Joseph Pincus MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) (1785 - 8 February 1842) & Channa/Johanna PICK  Descendants are found HERE.

  16.   Seligmann MÜHSAM (FORMERLY PAPPENHEIM) ( - 30 April 1831) & Dorothea COHN

  17. -  Herz MÜHSAM & Dorothea LIEBRECHT

  18. -  Isaak MÜHSAM & Dorothea BÖHM

  19.   Louis MÜHSAM & Bertha FRÄNKEL

  20.   Ida MÜHSAM & Prof. Dr. Siegfried HOSCH (21 February 1854 - )

  21.   Julius MÜHSAM & Stanislawa von FRYBÓSZ

  22.   Friedrike MÜHSAM & Georg BERHHARD

  23. -  Stefanie Ruth BERHHARD

  24.   Helene MÜHSAM* & Bruno SÜSS

  25. -  Lucya SÜSS

  26.   Helene MÜHSAM* & Stefan GIELDZINSKI

  27. -  Halinka GIELDZINSKI

  28.   Friedrike MÜHSAM & Jonas MATZDORFF

  29.   Siegismund MATZDORFF & Selma MORITZ

  30. -  Edith MATZDORFF

  31. -  Wally MATZDORFF

  32.   Ismar MATZDORFF & Lenchen GRÜN

  33. -  Recha MATZDORFF & MOSES

  34. -  Else MATZDORFF & BARTSCH

  35. -  Salo MATZDORFF

  36. -  Georg MATZDORFF

  37. -  Siegfried MATZDORFF

  38.   Josef MATZDORFF & Selma KORITOWSKY

  39. -  Egon MATZDORFF

  40. -  Dietrich MATZDORFF

  41. -  Elfriede MATZDORFF

  42. -  Leopold MATZDORFF

  43.   Marie MATZDORFF & Nathan GLOGOWSKI

  44. -  Max GLOGOWSKI

  45. -  Rudolf GLOGOWSKI

  46. -  Rosa GLOGOWSKI

  47. -  Walter GLOGOWSKI

  48. -  Georg GLOGOWSKI

  49. -  Kurt GLOGOWSKI

  50.   Hugo MATZDORFF & Louise BEIN

  51. -  Hedwig MATZDORFF

  52. -  Alfred MATZDORFF

  53. -  Kurt MATZDORFF

  54. -  Ruth MATZDORFF

  55.   Henriette MÜHSAM & GRÜN

  56.   Selma MÜHSAM & Jacob WERNER

  57.   Josef WERNER & Rosa SEIDENBERG

  58. -  Irma WERNER

  59. -  Georg WERNER

  60.   Seligmann MÜHSAM & Amalie LIBAS

  61.   Betty MÜHSAM & Adolf PICK

  62.   Dr. Med. Ismar MÜHSAM

  63.   Helene MÜHSAM (24 February 1864 - 8 January 1942)

  64.   Elly MÜHSAM (23 May 1870 - )

  65.   Nathan MÜHSAM (about 1857 - 17 January 1926, New York) & Amelia LACHMANN (about 1864 - 21 March 1946)

  66.   George MUEHSAM (28 June 1897, New York - 19 April 1952, New York) & Marion SKRABAL (17 February 1898 - October 1982, New York)

  67. -  Colonel Martin MUEHSAM (24 August 1924, New York - 6 February 2011, El Paso, TX) & Edith J.

           Martin served in the U.S. military during WWII, flying in bomber aircraft.  Participated in bombings of Leipzig, not too far from the towns of Silesia where the Mühsam family had come from some hundred and fifty years earlier.

  1. Mitchell H. MUEHSAM

  2. Carolynne Sue MUEHSAM & Moses L AYOUB

  3. Lili Martine AYOUB

  4. -  Anita MUEHSAM (about 1927, New York - ) & Charles L. LEVY

  5.   Edward Julius MUEHSAM (about 1891, New York - )

  6.   Erna MUEHSAM (about 1893, New York - )

  7. -  Moritz MÜHSAM (1805 - 1869) & Charlotte SCHWEITZER (1810 - 1870)

            Moritz MÜHSAM married his cousin, Charlotte SCHWEITZER.  Her family can be found on the SCHWEITZER page. See also the family tree on that page.

  1.   Rabbi Dr. Samuel MÜHSAM* (25 May 1837, Landsberg, Silesia - 20 February 1907, Graz, Austria) & Betty KANN (28 January 1844, Lissa - 28 March 1879, Graz, Austria)

  2.   Laura MÜHSAM (19 June 1866, Postelberg, Czechoslovkia - 25 October 1938) & Arnold ROSENTHAL (16 May 1858 - 17 April 1926, Berlin)

  3. -  Erich Ameriko ROSENTHAL (7 August 1891, San Juan, Argentina - 14 January 1947) & Paula WINTERLEITNER (27 June 1898, Vienna - )

  4. Argentino ROSENTHAL

  5. -  Elsa Betty ROSENTHAL (3 June 1898, San Juan, Argentina - 1 March 1974) & Willy BUTTERMILCH (25 December 1872 - 13 November 1934)

  6. -  Erna Argentina ROSENTHAL (17 April 1900, San Juan, Argentina - 29 August 1995) & Eduardo FOERTSCH (25 July 1890, Nürnberg - 12 November 1973)

  7.   Dr. Med. Hugo MÜHSAM (20 June 1867, Postelberg, Czechoslovkia - 27 September 1928, Graz, Austria)

  8.   Flora MÜHSAM (20 October 1868, Postelberg, Czechoslovkia - 25 October 1934, Graz, Austria) & Isidor NEUMANN (17 December 1859 - )

  9. -  Betty Elsa NEWMAN (25 October 1900, Graz, Austria - 21 June 1975 (?))

         Betty NEWMAN was a personal assistant to Albert Einstein, as well as his lover.

  1. -  Herbert Ernst/Ernst Herbert NEUMANN (4 March 1903, Graz - after 19 August 1942, Auschwitz)

  2. -  Hans NEUMANN (2 February 1898, Graz, Austria - 24 March 1898, Graz, Austria)

  3.   Martin MÜHSAM (24 December 1869, Postelberg, Czechoslovakia - 13 January 1928, Graz, Austria)

  4.   Charlotte MÜHSAM (12 January 1871, Znain, Czechoslovakia - 6 March 1941, Lisbon Portugal) & Ludwig MAULWURF (31 August 1860, Nagy-Kanizsa, Hungary - 19 August 1934, Graz)

  5. -  Felix (MAULWURF) MARTON (1 September 1902, Smyrna, Turkey - 1 October 1965, New York)

  6. -  Otto/Oliver (MAULWURF) MARTON (26 January 1904, Smyrna, Turkey - January 1976, Fort Lee, NJ) & Henny Toni SCHLESINGER (8 April 1902 - 15 September 1997)

  7. Dorothy MARTON

  8. -  Fritz (MAULWURF) MARTON (25 November 1905, Smyrna, Turkey - )

  9. -  Selma Betty (MAULWURF) MARTON (8 November 1907, Smyrna, Turkey - 4 November 1930, Graz, Austria)

  10.   Georg MÜHSAM (1872 - 1872)

  11.   Melanie MÜHSAM (19 August 1877, Biesenz, Czechoslovakia - ) & Dr. Alexander GÜNZBURG (16 July 1876, Charkow, Ukraine - )

  12. -  Paul GÜNZBURG (3 January 1900, Charkow, Ukraine - )

  13. -  Victor GÜNZBURG (1 March 1901, Charkow, Ukraine - December 1920)

  14. -  Georg Luria GÜNZBURG (10 March 1904, Charkow, Ukraine - )

  15.   Rabbi Dr. Samuel MÜHSAM* (25 May 1837 - 20 February 1907) & Marianne LÖWENSTEIN (about 1846 - 29 March 1924, Graz, Austria)

  16.   James MÜHSAM (1881 - )

  17.   Dr. Jur. Kurt MÜHSAM (3 May 1882, Graz, Austria - 17 November 1931, Berlin) & Alice FREYMARK (22 December 1889 - 26 February 1968, Spring Valley, NY).  Kürt MÜHSAM was a journalist and writer.  He was an editor for the Berliner Zeitung am Mittag.  The Leo Baeck Institute has the papers of Kurt and Alice Muehsam, and their children.  A description can be seen HERE.

  18. -  Ruth Philippine MÜHSAM, later Ruth MARTON (25 February 1912, Berlin - 1999, New York)

            Born in Berlin, Ruth Marton became a writer and actress and later lived in Hollywood and New York.  She was close friends with Erich Maria Remarque and with John and Walter Huston.

  1. -  Gerd MÜHSAM (30 March 1913, Berlin - 14 December 1979, New York)

  2. -  Helmut Victor MÜHSAM (12 August 1914, Berlin - 1997) & Brouria FELDMAN

  3. Ofra MÜHSAM & PELED

  4. Jonathan PELED

  5. Benjamin PELED

  6.   Walter MÜHSAM (1885 - ) & Thesy BÖHM

  7.   Siegfried Seligmann MÜHSAM (2 September 1838 - 21 July 1915) & Rosalie COHN (10 April 1849 - 24 March 1899)

           Siegfried Mühsam was a pharmacist in Lübeck, Germany, and the writer of “Geschichte des Namens Mühsam,” the history of the Mühsam family and the source of much of the information presented here.

  1.   Ernst Moritz MÜHSAM (died as a child)

  2.   Elisabeth Margarethe MÜHSAM (6 April 1875, Berlin - 15 May 1958, Rechovot, Israel) & Dr. med. Julius JOËL (25 January 1867, Pfungstadt, Germany - 18 June 1933, Rechovot, Israel)

  3. -  Walter David JOËL (3 April 1899 - 20 January 1991, Los Angeles)

  4. -  Dr. Ernst Ludwig JOËL & Edith Hanna OPPENHEIMER

  5. -  Theodor Ephraim JOËL** & Eva LANDAU

       Eva and Theodor were first cousins; see Eva a few lines below.

  1.   Dr. med. Hans Günther MÜHSAM (1876 - 1957) & Minna ADLER

            Hans Mühsam was both a collaborator and a close friend of Albert Einstein.  He moved to Palestine in the early 1930’s.

  1.   Erich  Kurt MÜHSAM (6 April 1878, Berlin - 10 July 1934, Oranienburg) & Kreszentia (Zenzl) ELFINGER (28 July 1884 - 10 March 1962)

            Erich Mühsam was a poet, writer, philosopher, and a leader of the anarchist movement in Germany.  He was one of the leaders of the 1917 leftist revolution in Bavaria.  He was murdered by the Nazis in 1934 at the Oranienburg concentration camp.  See the introduction to this page, above, for a photo and more about him.  His wife, Zenzl, was the daughter of a Bavarian farmer, Augustin Elfinger.  She had a son, Siegfried Elfinger (16 October 1902, Munich - 1 June 1969, Washington D.C.), when she was 17, and never revealed who the father was. She and Erich were married in 1915.  After Erich’s murder she fled to Moscow, but was imprisoned for 20 years in the Soviet Gulag, until 1955, when she went to the DDR (East Germany), where she died in 1962.  Her son, Siegfried, was a painter who immigrated to the U.S.

  1.   Charlotte Adelheid MÜHSAM (1881, Lübeck - 1971, Israel) & Dr. jur. Leo LANDAU (1880 - 1960)

  2. -  Gustav Ephraim LANDAU* & Hanna STEIN

  3. -  Gustav Ephraim LANDAU* & Lily BAUM

  4. -  Hans Theodor LANDAU** & Hildegard Irene MÜHSAM (5 July 1918 - )

            Hildegard was a distant relative of Hans.  She can also be found on THIS page.

  1. -  Eva LANDAU** & Theodor Ephraim JOËL

      Eva and Theodor were first cousins; see Theodor a few lines above.

  1.   Ernestine MÜHSAM & Isaak ROTHENBURG

  2.   Max ROTHENBURG

  3.   Marcus MÜHSAM (1844 - 1914) & Flora WALLACH (1853 - 1908)

  4.   Dr. jur. Paul MÜHSAM (17 July 1876 - 11 March 1960, Haifa, Israel) & Irma KAUFMANN (12 June 1889 - 19 September 1946)

  5. -  Else Flora MÜHSAM (8 May 1910 - ) & LEVY

  6. -  Charlotte Antonie MÜHSAM* (11 July 1912 - 7 February 1994, Tel Aviv) & Gunter Avraham FRIEDLANDER (8 April 1902, Koenigshutte, Silesia - 25 May 1975, Jerusalem)

        Gunter Friedlander was one of the two founders of the pharmaceutical firm TEVA in Israel.  TEVA is now the largest manufacturer of generic drugs in the world, and one of the 20 largest pharmaceutical companies overall.

  1. -  Charlotte Antonie MÜHSAM* (11 July 1912 - 7 February 1994) & Ernst MARKOWICZ (27 February 1901 - 23 October 1979)

  2.   Rosalie Aurelie MÜHSAM & Rabbi Dr. David WEISS

  3. -  Johann Salomo MÜHSAM & Louise Wilhelmine ZILLMANN

  4.   (Johann) Wilhelm MÜHSAM* & Bertha SCHLETH

  5.   Wilhelm MÜHSAM & Mimmi FLÜGGE

  6. -  Luise MÜHSAM

  7. -  Wilhelmine Margarethe MÜHSAM (23 April 1891, New York - )

  8.   Ernst Carl MÜHSAM (1 January 1865, Berlin - ) & Elisabeth WOLDMANN

  9. -  Erna MÜHSAM

  10. -  Erich MÜHSAM

  11.   Paul Franz MÜHSAM (August 1866, Berlin - ) & Hedwig LOHSE

  12. -  Paul MÜHSAM

  13.   Luise MÜHSAM

  14.   Johanna MÜHSAM

  15.   Otto MÜHSAM

  16.   (Johann) Wilhelm MÜHSAM* & Wilhelmine NUSCHE

  17.   Marie MÜHSAM

  18.   Otto MÜHSAM

  19.   Auguste Frieferike MÜHSAM (30 May 1841, Berlin - ) & August TRÄBERT

  20.   Ernst TRÄBERT

  21.   Eugen TRÄBERT

  22.   Anna TRÄBERT

  23.   (Ernst) Franz MÜHSAM (5 December 1845, Berlin - ) & Katharina MÜLLER

  24.   Gertrud MÜHSAM

  25.   Franz MÜHSAM & Mimi SCHUMACHER

  26. -  Käte Henriette MÜHSAM

  27. -  Franz MÜHSAM

  28.   Paul MÜHSAM

  29.   Anna MÜHSAM & Eduard LOHSE

  30.   Johanna MÜHSAM (6 March 1853, Berlin - ) & Ernst BRAUNSCHWEIG

  31.   Johanna BRAUNSCHWEIG

  32.   Gustav MÜHSAM (18 February 1855, Berlin - ) & Helene SCHRAGE

  33.   Natalie MÜHSAM & Paul RADTKE

  34.   Margarete MÜHSAM & Willi GENTSCH

  35. -  Ernestine MÜHSAM (17 October 1812 - 17 January 1891) & Israel Emanuel THILO (8 October 1809 - 12 November 1872)

  36.   Dr. med. Siegfried Seligmann THILO (1 April 1837, Honigern - 1 September 1886, Neisse) & Malwine FRIEDMANN (1 January 1843, Breslau - 20 March 1894, Neisse) See family photo at the bottom of the page.

  37.   Martha THILO (26 July 1867, Neisse - 13 January 1909, Berlin)

  38.   Eugen THILO (14 June 1869, Neisse - 19 May 1940, London) & Martha EPHRAIMSON (7 August 1874, Strelitz - 15 September 1935, Berlin)

  39. -  Eduard Fritz THILO (18 September 1902, Bradford, U.K. - 2 November 1955, New York) & Eva WACHSMANN (10 June 1910, Breslau - 17 June 1992, Florida, U.S.)

  40. -  Hans Arthur THILO* (13 December 1903, Bradford, U.K. - 29 October 1975, London) & Lillian SCHWARTZ (18 September 1914, New Haven, CT - )

  41. -  Hans Arthur THILO* (13 December 1903, Bradford, U.K. - 29 October 1975, London) & Vera COLLENS (22 November 1909, London - 15 December 1995, Cambridge, England)

  42. -  Margarete Malwine THILO* (9 July 1906, Bradford, U.K. - 6 March 1972) & Hannes SCHWEIGER (24 August 1908, Weinheim - 17 October 1968, London)

  43. -  Margarete Malwine THILO* (9 July 1906, Bradford, U.K. - 6 March 1972) & Fritz HELLENDALL (25 August 1912, Dusseldorf - 22 June 1999, London)

  44. -  Helene THILO (5 June 1910, Bradford, U.K. - 19 December 1960, London) & Ernst Moritz LEVY (1 June 1894, Berlin - 16 October 1982, London)

  45.   Dr. Jur. Carl THILO (6 November 1874, Neisse - 19 May 1931, Breslau) & Marie LOEWENSTAEDT (10 February 1883, Breslau - 23 May 1944, KZ Theresienstadt)

  46. -  Margarete Marie THILO (3 August 1910, Sohrau, Silesia - 1 April 1995, Haifa, Israel) & Jakob SLIJPER (7 March 1910, Utrecht, Netherlands - 17 January 1967, Rotterdam)

  47. Mirjam Josephine SLIJPER (1940 - ) & Jack Robert VISKOPER (1938 - )

  48. Galit VISKOPER (1969 - )

  49. -Ophir VISKOPER (2009 )

  50. Michal VISKOPER (1975 - ) & Tomer OFRI (1975 - )

  51. -Shahar OFRI (2004 - )

  52. -Yael OFRI (2007 - )

  53. -Eyal OFRI (2007 - )

  54. -Ela OFRI (2010 - )

  55. Leo SLIJPER (1946 - ) & Naomi Ruth KELLER (1946 - )

  56. Nadav SLIJPER (1972 - ) & Keren Elite SHTOKHAMER (1973 - )

  57. -Yuval SLIJPER (1997 - )

  58. -Barak SLIJPER (2001 - )

  59. -Ariel SLIJPER (2003 - )

  60. -Amit SLIJPER (2007 - )

  61. -Yonatan Mikey SLIJPER (2013 - )

  62. Amir SLIJPER (1974 - ) & Ayelet Lavi (1979 - )

  63. -Uriah SLIJPER (2005 - )

  64. -Ilai SLIJPER (2009 - )

  65. Iris SLIJPER (1977 - ) & Avi Bar-Masada (1976 - )

  66. -Eyal Bar-Masada (2005 - )

  67. -Noa Bar-Masada (2007 - )

  68. -Roni (2010 - )

  69. Jael SLIJPER (1984 - )

  70.   Hugo THILO (12 April 1866, Neisse - 10 October 1866, Neisse)

  71.   Joseph THILO (16 May 1839, Kreutzendorf - 1907, Festenberg) & Helene LEVY

  72.   Dr. phil. Julius THILO (1866, Neustadt - ) & Emma SCHLEGAL

  73.   Dorothea THILO (8 May 1840, Kreutzendorf - )

  74.   August THILO (29 March 1843, Plimkenau - 3 November 1893, Berlin) & Elise PICK (19 April 1848 - 6 January 1894, Berlin)

  75.   Elsa THILO & Gustav WEIL

  76.   Gertrud THILO & BECHER

  77.   Bertha THILO

  78.   Fritz THILO

  79.   Charlotte THILO (7 December 1845, Carlsruche - ) & Max WERNER

  80.   Clara WERNER & COHN

  81.   Louis THILO (2 January 1848, Gross Wartenberg - 7 July 1910, Berlin)

  82.   David THILO (13 October 1854, Oberglogau - 6 September 1904, Berlin) & Doris EPHRAIM (22 August 1864 - 14 January 1934, Berlin)

  83.   Dr. jur. Georg THILO

  84. -  Pinkus MÜHSAM* (June 1813 - 16 November 1886) & Dorothea OSCHINSKY

                        Dorothea was also married to Moses SORAUER, Pinkus MÜHSAM’S first cousin.  See the SORAUER page for details.

  1.   Marie MÜHSAM & Max/meyer RASCHKOW (1835 - )

  2.   Dr. Richard RASCHKOW

  3. -  Pinkus MÜHSAM* (June 1813 - 16 November 1886) & Amalie WERNER

  4.   Salo Seligmann MÜHSAM (8 January 1856, Neisse - )

  5.   Emil MÜHSAM (1843, Opole Prov. - 1 October 1843)

  6.   Fanny MÜHSAM (1844, Opole Prov. - 13 August 1844, Opole Prov.)

  7.   Richard MÜHSAM (10 April 1863, Neisse - 8 February 1864, Neisse)

  8. -  Charlotte MÜHSAM & S. MAY

  9. -  Joseph MÜHSAM

  10. -  Simon MÜHSAM

 




*People with asterisks after their names were married two or more times.  They have a separate line for each spouse.

**People with two asterisks after their name were married to a relative who can also be found somewhere on these pages.


For more Mühsams, also see the Mühsam II and Mühsam III pages


The descendants of Pinkus MÜHSAM (1737 - 1897, whose story can be found HERE), for the most part stayed in the general region of upper Silesia, now part of western Poland, where Pinkus had settled.  As the 1800’s progressed two trends occurred.  The first was a move from small towns to larger towns and cities, especially to Berlin (see MAP).  As the industrial revolution took place in Germany, Berlin became the economic capital of Germany, and in 1871 it became the capital of the newly united Germany.  With that, Berlin also became the center for political activity in Germany.  The second trend was the move into the professions.  Looking at the names on this and the other Mühsam and Pappenheim pages, it is impressive how many doctors, professors, and lawyers can be identified based on their titles.  Many other professions such as bankers, government officials, and pharmacists were also represented.  The Jewish tradition of study and learning had clearly expanded beyond the pre-19th century focus on Torah and Talmud.


Siegfried Mühsam, who wrote the book, “Geschichte des Namens Mühsam” (History of the Name Mühsam), from which most of the family data presented here comes from, was a pharmacist by profession.  He expected his son Erich, shown on the right, to follow in his footsteps.  Erich had other ideas.  Born in Berlin, he grew up in Lübeck. As a student, he rebelled against the regimentation and memorization found in the German schools, and he was expelled from Gymnasium (high school) after publishing an article denouncing one of his teachers and for participating in socialist activities.  Although his father wanted him to study pharmacy, Erich chose to pursue a literary career.  He headed back to Berlin where he joined a socialist group and worked on writing poetry.  His political philosophy continued to evolve, moving towards communism and anarchism.  A high proportion of the European left at that time was Jewish, especially in Russia and Germany.  Karl Marx had been Jewish, as were Leon Trotsky in Russia, and Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in Germany.  This was quite likely due to a combination of two factors: the Jews’ history as the victims of oppression, often government encouraged (especially in the Russia of the czars, with their state-supported terrorism against the Jews), and by the Jewish traditions of Tzedakah (charity or justice) and Tikkun Olam (repairing/perfecting the world).


In 1904 Erich went to Switzerland, where he began writing plays, which was followed by a move to Munich in 1908.  In Munich he became involved in writing for cabaret. His political writings continued, and he founded the communist-anarchist newspaper “Kain” (shown at right) and became both a political leader and philosophical leader of the anarchist movement in Germany.  When World War I began in 1914, he became very nationalistic and pro-war, but by the end of 1914, he reversed himself, renouncing the war.  In 1915 he married Kreszentia (“Zenzl”) Elfinger. 


As the war continued, Mühsam became more involved in worker’s strikes and was imprisoned from April through November, 1918, and was released just before the war ended. With the end of the war the German government collapsed, with the Kaiser abdicating, as did King Ludwig III of Bavaria.  Kurt Eisner declared Bavaria a socialist republic, and offered a cabinet position to Mühsam.  Mühsam turned him down, in favor of working with the more radical worker’s councils (Soviets). Eisner was assassinated in 1919, and the Bavarian Soviet Republic was declared, led by Ernst Toller, Gustav Landauer, and Erich Mühsam.  The government only lasted six days, to be replaced by a communist government led by Eugen Levine.  That government was in turn overthrown by the right-wing Freikorps (precursors to the Nazis).  Mühsam was arrested and sentenced to 15 years in prison.  He wrote much while in prison, and was released in a general amnesty given in 1924 (as was Adolf Hitler, who had also been in prison).


After his release, Erich continued his writing, founding a new journal, Fanal (Torch), and becoming very critical of both the communists and the right-wing parties.  As the Nazis grew in influence, his writings focussed more and more on criticizing and satirizing them. When they took power in 1933, Mühsam was among the first people they arrested, on February 28, 1933, hours after the Reichstag fire, and a day before he had planned to flee to Switzerland.  During his imprisonment Mühsam was tortured and finally murdered at the Oranienburg concentration camp on July 9, 1934.


After the war, Mühsam’s writings continued to be popular, and he became something of an icon in the DDR (East Germany), where his works were studied in the schools, and his poems were required to be memorized as part of the regimented East German school system (a school system in many ways similar to the one Mühsam originally protested against).


There are several websites, in German, dedicated to the works and anarchist philosophy of Erich Mühsam, including www.erich-muehsam.de and www.muehsam.de.

Click here for HOME page.            Click here for INDEX.


If you are related to anyone on this page I would very much like to hear from you.  You can contact me at geneo (at) theKesters.net or



Daniel Kester


Page added:  March 16, 2009        Last update: December 13, 2011

TERMS OF USE- All material contained on this site is provided for the free use of those researching their family origins. Commercial use by anyone is strictly prohibited. Uploading or contributing to commercial genealogy publishers, religion associated sites (e.g. LDS), .com companies & advertisers is prohibited.  If you would like to re-publish any of this data on another non-commercial website, or anywhere else, please contact me. 

For information on DLC: hard low friction diamond-like thin film coatings, go to www.djkcoatingsolutions.com

Erich Mühsam

1878-1934

KAIN

Newspaper published by Erich Mühsam

Next PageMuhsam_II.html
Previous PagePappenheim_III.html


Siegfried, Martha, Eugen, and Malwine Thilo

About 1870